Substance Use Disorder (SUD)

People With Substance Use Disorder at Risk for Breakthrough COVID-19 Infections | Everyday Health

According to the DSM-5, substance use disorder is a combination of substance abuse and substance dependency. It is measured from a mild level to a severe level. The mild level includes 2-3 symptoms. The moderate level includes 4-5 symptoms. Lastly, the Severe criteria refer to more than 5 symptoms. Each specific substance is a separate use disorder. The substance use criteria include the subcategories; Impaired control, Social impairment, Risky use, Tolerance, and Withdrawal. (Martins, 2021)

Substance Intoxication: The development of a reversible syndrome that is considered to be substance specific because of the recent ingestion of a substance such as; methamphetamine, heroin, cocaine, LSD, and marijuana to name a few. The substance has physiological effects on the Central nervous system which develop either during use or shortly after use. This causes clinically significant problematic behavior and psychological change that is associated with the intoxication that comes with the intoxication that comes with substance use. (Martins, 2021)

Substance Withdrawal: The development of substance-specific behavioral change that is considered problematic. It occurs due to the reduction in use after heavy use over a long period of time or due to stopping the use completely after having used it heavily over a long period of time. Causes clinically significant levels of distress or impairment in social life, personal relationships, and occupation. (Martins, 2021)

There can be both environmental and genetic causes of substance use disorder. Environmental factors include a family history of addiction, lack of involvement of family, and exposure to peers that encourage use, mental health, early use, and type of drug taken some are considered more addictive than others. Genetics plays a role once the individual has started to take the drug. The development into the addiction can be either delayed or speed up the progression of the disease depending on the traits that have been genetically inherited.

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